Haphazard Intentional Sampling Techniques in Network Design of Monitoring Stations


In empirical science, random sampling is the golden standard to ensure unbiased, impartial, or fair results, as it works as a technological barrier designed to prevent spurious communication or illegitimate interference between parties in the application of interest. However, the chance of at least one covariate showing a significant difference between two treatment groups increases exponentially with the number of covariates. In 2012, Morgan and Rubin proposed a coherent approach to solve this problem based on rerandomization in order to ensure that the final allocation obtained is balanced, but with an exponential computation cost in the number of covariates. Haphazard Intentional Sampling is a statistical technique that combines intentional sampling using goal optimization techniques with random perturbations. On one hand, it has all the benefits of standard randomization and, on the other hand, avoid exponentially large (and costly) sample sizes. In this work, we compare the haphazard and rerandomization methods in a case study regarding the re-engineering of the network of measurement stations for atmospheric pollutants. In comparison with rerandomization, the haphazard method provided groups with a better balance and permutation tests consistently more powerful.

In Proceedings of The 39th International Workshop on Bayesian Inference and Maximum Entropy Methods in Science and Engineering
Rafael B. Stern
Rafael B. Stern
Professor of Statistics

I am an Assistant Professor at the University of São Paulo. I have a B.A. in Statistics from the University of São Paulo, a B.A. in Law from Pontifícia Universidade Católica in São Paulo, and a Ph.D. in Statistics from Carnegie Mellon University. I am currently a member of the Scientific Council of the Brazilian Association of Jurimetrics, an associate investigator at NeuroMat and a member of the Order of Attorneys of Brazil.